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This useful ebook presents a accomplished assessment of the epidemiology and scientific presentation of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). It additionally publications the reader via threat review, threat stratification, prognosis, and therapy of ACS.

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Extra resources for Acute Coronary Syndromes in Clinical Practice

Example text

When calculating CD, the embedding dimension m must be selected so that it is at least 2D, where D is the dimension of the system under study, that is, the number of real dynamical variables. In order for the correlation integral to describe the attractor accurately, the number of data points should exceed 10m. For example, when studying the blood pressure regulation system, we may assume that the number of dynamical variables is >4, which means that the time series must be very long. In addition, it is nearly impossible to find such a range of the distance r, in which log Cm(r) changes linearly as a function of log r, because of the noise contained in the data and non-stationarity of the data.

The highest-frequency component (n = N/2), called the Nyquist critical frequency, is fc = 1/(2Δ). If the time series x(tk) is a pure sine wave of a frequency exactly equal to one of the frequencies fn, only X(fn) is non-zero, as we can expect. However, if the frequency f of the oscillation is between two adjacent fns, there are many non-zero spectral components X(fn) around f. This is called leakage from one frequency to another in the power spectral estimate, and it is characteristic only of the discrete Fourier transform.

However, WVD has another problem: if there are two frequency peaks f1 and f2 close to each other, the WVD spectrum also contains small but significant erroneous components at the frequencies f1 − f2 and f1 + f2. In the case of multiple dominant frequency peaks, the background of WVD spectrum can be contaminated by many spurious frequency peaks of low amplitude. This feature of the WVD method forces us to be careful when interpreting the finer details of the spectrum. 5, but unfortunately at the price of lower frequency resolution.

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