By Giamila Fantuzzi
This e-book offers a entire survey of adipose tissue, its physiological capabilities, and its position in affliction. the quantity spans the total variety of adipose tissue reports, from simple anatomical and physiological learn to epidemiology and medical reviews. Groundbreaking contemporary stories are included into conventional versions of adipose tissue houses. an outline of the position of macrophages in weight problems and metabolism in integrated.
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Extra info for Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease (Nutrition & Health)
3. Electron microscopy of murine white adipose tissue. Note the small and elongated mitochondria in the perinuclear area and in the thin rim of cytoplasm surrounding the large unilocular lipid droplet. F, fibroblast; CAP, capillary lumen; Ma, macrophage; M, mitochondria; N, nucleus; L, liquid droplet. Bar = 2 Rm. Adrenergic receptors (F1, 2 and G1, 2, and 3) are present in the adipose organ. The density of parenchymal fibers varies according to the functional status of the organ. During cold exposure the noradrenergic parenchymal fibers increase their number in the brown part of the organ (8).
Both white and brown adipose tissues are organised into a real organ, with a complex multi-depot organisation. Each depot has its own discrete vascular and nerve supply. The characteristics of the organ can be adapted to functional requirements in relation to the energy balance of the organism. The two tissues seem to derive from precursors with different morphological and functional characteristics, but with possibilities of reciprocal conversion, with an important role played by the nervous system.
The finding that DAG accumulates in adipocytes of these mice (103) suggested that this lipase had a preference for the hydrolysis of TAG, and was rate-limiting for this first step of lipolysis, whereas HSL was limiting for the hydrolysis of DAG. Such a lipase, named adipose tissue lipase (ATGL), has been described recently (104). This enzyme is identical to the protein desnutrin (105) and to the calcium-independent phospholipase A2_ (106), described nearly simultaneously. In mice and humans ATGL is expressed predominantly in white and brown adipose tissue, localized to the adipocyte lipid droplet.