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Page 27 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Bioethanol Production of bioethanol 6 Dehydration: the alcohol then passes through a dehydration system where the remaining water is removed. Most plants use a molecular sieve to capture the last bit of water in the ethanol. The alcohol at this stage is called anhydrous (pure, without water) ethanol and is approximately 200 proof. 7 Denaturing: ethanol that is used for fuel is then denatured with a small amount (2–5%) of some product, like gasoline, to make it unfit for human consumption.

The release of these grants is a major step forwards for the cellulosic ethanol industry as many ethanol producers were waiting for this announcement to move ahead with their plans. These grants are critical to bringing cellulosic ethanol to the commercial market and underscore the important partnership that the federal government must have with the US ethanol industry to achieve both the short-term and long-term energy goals. These grants will help ethanol producers with the up-front capital costs associated with the construction of the cellulosic ethanol biorefineries.

1987; Badger, 2002). Also thermo-chemical processes can be used to produce ethanol: gasification followed either by fermentation or by a catalysed reaction. Hydrolysis fermentation of lignocellulose is much more complicated than just fermentation of sugar. In hydrolysis, the cellulosic part of the biomass is converted to sugars, and fermentation converts these sugars to ethanol. To increase the yield of hydrolysis, a pre-treatment step is needed that softens the biomass and breaks down cell structures to a large extent.

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