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By Sascha W. Felix

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Chaetoceros sp. etc. can utilize ammonia and nitrate directly. If these organisms are present in optimum levels the danger of ammonia build-up will be reduced. However, it is very difficult to control the species of algae growing in a pond. Table 3: Total Ammonia Nitrogen Levels Vs Other Factors An additional factor is that when dissolved oxygen levels are low, nitrates are reduced to ammonia, thus increasing the level of ammonia in the water. A decrease in dissolved oxygen also increases the toxicity of unionized ammonia.

They can be easily distinguished by their long, bright orange antennae which have a prominent sharp bend in them. Post-larvae of shrimps have short, colourless antennae. In addition, these larvae do not have statocysts (in live animals these appear like small bright spots to the naked eye) on the tail (Mysidacea), and their eyes do not extend laterally at a 90o angle (Sergestidae). The uropods of Mysidacea are not spread fan-like as in shrimp, but are parallel, directed posterior. ‘Penaeus’ post-larvae are long and thin, while that of ‘Metapenaeus’ are relatively short and stout.

10 7000 2. 25 × 2. 25 The fertilizer to be applied is simply piled onto the platform and left alone. Recommendations for Managing Natural Food Organisms in Shrimp Ponds (a) Start with phytoplankton or “lab-lab“ for no more than the first two months after post larvae are stocked. (b) The shrimps should be held afterwards in ponds where production of phytoplankton or “lumut“ is maintained depending on the salinity level. (c) This can be accomplished by growing the shrimps in a nursery pond for the first two months and then transferring them to another pond.

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