Download Antibiotics: A Multidisciplinary Approach by Giancarlo Lancini, Francesco Parenti, Gian Gualberto Gallo PDF

By Giancarlo Lancini, Francesco Parenti, Gian Gualberto Gallo (auth.)

In this translation of the Italian moment variation, the authors supply a finished account of the present wisdom on antibiotics. They concisely describe how a variety of medical disciplines are curious about antibiotics learn, improvement, and use. Their paintings additionally discusses the commercial and scientific improvement of recent antibiotics, in addition to the questions and controversies relating to the functionality of antibiotics in nature. Antibiotics is richly illustrated with transparent chemical constructions, drawings, diagrams, and synoptical tables.

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However, there are some exceptions. For example, when a large number of antibiotic molecules are absorbed on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and the bacterial density is high, the free molecules available to penetrate into the cells are reduced to a number insufficient for inhibition. Often a large number of antibiotic molecules are necessary to inhibit the growth of a single cell. , ß-lactamases, which can inactivate ß-lactam antibiotics: see Chapter 4). The amount of antibiotic destroyed is essentially a function of the enzyme concentration in the culture medium, which, in turn, depends on inoculum density.

The dispersion of the measured values can also be calculated. 4. The Antibiogram The term antibiogram indicates a set of information on susceptibility or resistance of a microorganism toward a panel of antibiotics. Usually the antibiogram is determined by one of the methods described above. 5). Remernher that the dimension of the halo does not depend only on the activity of the antibiotic but, in a relevant way, on its diffusion rate as weil. It would be a mistake to automatically consider the antibiotics that yield larger halos more active.

Same of the relevant factors are: the composition of the medium, the density of the bacterial inoculum, and the total number of bacterial cells in the inoculum. In addition, there are some specific factors that affect activity when determined in solid medium. 28 Chapter 2 Synergism ....... 6. Isobolagrams indicating synergism or antagonism between antibiotics A and B. The points on the right of the solid curve represent the concentrations of antibiotics A and B that together inhibit the growth of the microbial strain.

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