By Jason J. Molitierno

''Preface at the floor, matrix thought and graph conception are possible very assorted branches of arithmetic. in spite of the fact that, those branches of arithmetic have interaction because it is usually handy to symbolize a graph as a matrix. Adjacency, Laplacian, and occurrence matrices are time-honored to symbolize graphs. In 1973, Fiedler released his first paper on Laplacian matrices of graphs and confirmed what number houses ofRead more...

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**Extra info for Applications of combinatorial matrix theory to Laplacian matrices of graphs**

**Example text**

Since the set of vectors {x( ) : > 0} is contained in the compact set {x : x ∈ C n , x 1 ≤ 1}, there is a monotone decreasing sequence 1 , 2 , . , with limk→∞ k = 0 such that x := limk→∞ x( k ) exists. Since x( k ) >> 0 for all k, it follows that x ≥ 0. However, since n n x( k )i = 1 xi = lim i=1 k→∞ i=1 it follows that x = 0, hence x > 0. 20 it follows that ρ(A( k )) ≥ ρ(A( k+1 )) ≥ . . ≥ ρ(A), for any k. Thus the sequence of real numbers {ρ(A( k ))}k=1,2,... is a bounded monotone decreasing sequence and hence ρ := limk→∞ ρ(A( k )) exists and ρ ≥ ρ(A).

Since the determinant of a matrix is the product of the eigenvalues of the matrix, it follows that det G > 0. Since det(G) = det(A), we see that det(A) > 0. D−1 AD ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ “molitierno˙01” — 2011/12/13 — 10:46 — ✐ Matrix Theory Preliminaries ✐ 27 Finally, let Aˆ be a principal submatrix of A. Writing A as sI − B where B ≥ 0 ˆ where B ˆ is the corresponding submatrix of and s > ρ(B), we see that Aˆ = sI − B ˆ ˆ B. Since s > ρ(B) ≥ ρ(B), it follows that A is also a nonsingular M-matrix. Hence ˆ > 0.

Xn ). Observe ADe = Ax = e >> 0. Thus AD has positive row sums. Since AD is a Z-matrix, it follows that AD is strictly diagonally dominant. Since multiplying AD on the left by D−1 scales the entries in the ith row by a factor of 1/xi > 0 for each i, it follows that G = D−1 AD is strictly diagonally dominant. Note that the diagonal entries of A are strictly positive. 7, (ii) the off-diagonal entries of A are nonpositive, and (iii) the dot product of the ith row of A with the ith column of A−1 is one.