Download Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code by Bruce Schneier PDF

By Bruce Schneier

". . .the most sensible advent to cryptography I've ever visible. . . . The publication the nationwide safety organisation sought after by no means to be released. . . ." -Wired Magazine

". . .monumental . . . interesting . . . entire . . . the definitive paintings on cryptography for machine programmers . . ." -Dr. Dobb's Journal

". . .easily ranks as probably the most authoritative in its field." -PC Magazine

". . .the bible of code hackers." -The Millennium complete Earth Catalog

This re-creation of the cryptography vintage offers you a accomplished survey of recent cryptography. The booklet information how programmers and digital communications pros can use cryptography-the means of enciphering and interpreting messages-to retain the privateness of laptop facts. It describes dozens of cryptography algorithms, provides useful suggestion on the best way to enforce them into cryptographic software program, and exhibits how they are often used to resolve protection difficulties. masking the most recent advancements in sensible cryptographic ideas, this re-creation indicates programmers who layout desktop functions, networks, and garage platforms how they could construct safety into their software program and systems.

What's new within the moment Edition?
* New info at the Clipper Chip, together with how one can defeat the foremost escrow mechanism
* New encryption algorithms, together with algorithms from the previous Soviet Union and South Africa, and the RC4 move cipher
* the most recent protocols for electronic signatures, authentication, safe elections, electronic money, and more
* extra distinctive details on key administration and cryptographic implementations

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Extra resources for Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C (2nd Edition)

Sample text

He slides each pair of ciphertexts against each other and counts the number of matches at each position. If they are aligned right, the proportion of matches jumps suddenly—the exact percentages depend on the plaintext language. From this point cryptanalysis is easy. It’s like the index of coincidence, but with just two “periods” to compare [904]. Don’t do it. The idea of a one-time pad can be easily extended to binary data. Instead of a one-time pad consisting of letters, use a one-time pad of bits.

A good computer algorithm is [703]. Homophonic substitution ciphers were used as early as 1401 by the Duchy of Mantua [794]. They are much more complicated to break than simple substitution ciphers, but still do not obscure all of the statistical properties of the plaintext language. With a known-plaintext attack, the ciphers are trivial to break. A ciphertext-only attack is harder, but only takes a few seconds on a computer. Details are in [1261]. Polygram substitution ciphers are ciphers in which groups of letters are encrypted together.

It will only take a few seconds with a computer. Assume the plaintext is English. Furthermore, assume the key length is any small number of bytes. Here’s how to break it: { 1. Discover the length of the key by a procedure known as counting coincidences [577]. XOR the ciphertext against itself shifted various numbers of bytes, and count those bytes that are equal. If the displacement is a multiple of the key length, then something over 6 percent of the bytes will be equal. 4 percent will be equal (assuming a random key encrypting normal ASCII text; other plaintext will have different numbers).

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