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By Rudolf Kingslake

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2003, 2004; Stephens et al. 2006). Indeed, such models may eventually enable us to capture the unique functionality of biological intelligence in engineered hardware and software systems. But such models also require a quantity and quality of information not generally assessable, especially for the large and complex systems that constitute the human brain. In addition to identifying the types and functional characteristic of component neurons and characterizing their connectivity, we must eventually reconcile the function of brain models in silico with the observed responses of biological wetware, both to optimize the implicit parameters that we cannot easily measure and to test and validate the performance of our models.

Ci-VSP (Ciona intestinalis Voltage-Sensor-containing Phosphatase), for example, is a voltage-controlled enzyme consisting of a transmembrane voltage sensor domain and a cytosolic phosphoinositide phosphatase domain (Murata et al. 2005). The voltage sensor domain from this protein was shown to be functional when the enzyme domain was removed (Murata et al. 2005). Very recently, it was also shown by the Isacoff laboratory that the Ci-VSP can exist as a monomer in the plasma membrane (Kohout et al.

Lines are Boltzmann fits.  2 of Dimitrov et al. 6). At 22°C, activation and deactivation kinetics were similar to those of VSFP2A-D. 6b). 1, a candidate for optical measurements of neuronal activity, such as large synaptic potentials, action potentials, and bistabilities in resting membrane potential. To demonstrate this prediction, PC12 cells were voltage clamped with membrane potential traces obtained from mouse mitral cells. 7), as well as the slower underlying membrane depolarization. 1, the optical readout of the fast action potentials was reduced relative to the slower components of membrane potential change.

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